Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Introduction to Networking Assignments (V.5 + V.6) CCNA 1 chapter 2 Answers 100% correct

Hi! This solution is for assignments Introduction to Networking chapter 2 in CCNA 1 v.5 plus v.6 exams given in Netacad Academy. This solution is just for learning purpose & please don't use this for any kind cheat. Be honest and do hard work ...

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1. What is the function of the kernel of an operating software?
  • It provides a user interface that allows users to request a specific task.
  • The kernel links the hardware drivers with the underlying electronics of a computer.
  • It is an application that allows the initial configuration of a Cisco device.
  • The kernel provisions hardware resources to meet software requirements.*

2. Which procedure is used to access a Cisco 2960 switch when performing an initial configuration in a secure environment?
  • Use Telnet to remotely access the switch through the network.
  • Use the console port to locally access the switch from a serial or USB interface of the PC.*
  • Use Secure Shell to remotely access the switch through the network.
  • Use the AUX port to locally access the switch from a serial or USB interface of the PC.

3. A router has a valid operating system and a configuration file stored in NVRAM. The configuration file contains an enable secret password but no console password. When the router boots up, which mode will display?
  • global configuration mode
  • setup mode
  • privileged EXEC mode
  • user EXEC mode *

4. Which information does the show startup-config command display?
  • the IOS image copied into RAM
  • the bootstrap program in the ROM
  • the contents of the current running configuration file in the RAM
  • the contents of the saved configuration file in the NVRAM *

5. Which two host names follow the guidelines for naming conventions on Cisco IOS devices? (Choose two.)
  • Branch2!
  • RM-3-Switch-2A4*
  • Floor(15)
  • HO Floor 17
  • SwBranch799*

6. In your opinion (this has no bearing on your grade), please indicate how enthusiastic you are about the content of this course and the things you’re learning (or have learned):
  • Not At All Enthusiastic
  • Slightly Enthusiastic
  • Enthusiastic*
  • Very Enthusiastic
  • Completely Enthusiastic
7. Refer to the exhibit. A network administrator is configuring the MOTD on switch SW1. What is the purpose of this command?
Configure Terminal

  • to display a message when a user accesses the switch*
  • to configure switch SW1 so that only the users in the Admin group can telnet into SW1
  • to force users of the Admin group to enter a password for authentication
  • to configure switch SW1 so that the message will display when a user enters the enable command

8. What is the function of the kernel of an operating system?
  • It provides a user interface that allows users to request a specific task.
  • The kernel links the hardware drivers with the underlying electronics of a computer.
  • It is an application that allows the initial configuration of a Cisco device.
  • The kernel provisions hardware resources to meet software requirements.*

9. In your opinion (this has no bearing on your grade), please rate your motivation to do well in this course:
  • Not At All Motivated
  • Slightly Motivated
  • Motivated
  • Very Motivated*
  • Completely Motivated

10. What are two characteristics of RAM on a Cisco device? (Choose two.)
  • RAM provides nonvolatile storage.
  • The configuration that is actively running on the device is stored in RAM. *
  • The contents of RAM are lost during a power cycle. *
  • RAM is a component in Cisco switches but not in Cisco routers.
  • RAM is able to store multiple versions of IOS and configuration files.

11. Which interface is the default SVI on a Cisco switch?
  • FastEthernet 0/1
  • GigabitEthernet 0/1
  • VLAN 1*
  • VLAN 99

12. What command can be used on a Windows PC to see the IP configuration of that computer?
  • ping
  • ipconfig*
  • show interfaces
  • show ip interface brief

13. What is a user trying to determine when issuing a ping 10.1.1.1 command on a PC?
  • if the TCP/IP stack is functioning on the PC without putting traffic on the wire
  • if there is connectivity with the destination device*
  • the path that traffic will take to reach the destination
  • what type of device is at the destination

14. Refer to the exhibit.
Refer to the exhibit. What three facts can be determined from the viewable output of the show ip interface brief command? (Choose three.)
Introduction to Networking chapter 2 version 6 answers
 
  • Two physical interfaces have been configured.
  • The switch can be remotely managed.*
  • One device is attached to a physical interface.*
  • Passwords have been configured on the switch.
  • Two devices are attached to the switch.
  • The default SVI has been configured.*

15. A network administrator needs to keep the user ID, password, and session contents private when establishing remote CLI connectivity with a switch to manage it. Which access method should be chosen?
  • Telnet
  • Console
  • AUX
  • SSH*

16. Which command or key combination allows a user to return to the previous level in the command hierarchy?
  • end
  • exit*
  • Ctrl-Z
  • Ctrl-C

17. Which two functions are provided to users by the context-sensitive help feature of the Cisco IOS CLI? (Choose two.)
  • providing an error message when a wrong command is submitted
  • displaying a list of all available commands within the current mode*
  • allowing the user to complete the remainder of an abbreviated command with the TAB key
  • determining which option, keyword, or argument is available for the entered command*
  • selecting the best command to accomplish a task

18. Why is it important to configure a hostname on a device?
  • a Cisco router or switch only begins to operate when its hostname is set
  • a hostname must be configured before any other parameters
  • to identify the device during remote access (SSH or telnet)*
  • to allow local access to the device through the console port

19. How does the service password-encryption command enhance password security on Cisco routers and switches?
  • It encrypts passwords as they are sent across the network.
  • It encrypts passwords that are stored in router or switch configuration files.*
  • It requires that a user type encrypted passwords to gain console access to a router or switch.
  • It requires encrypted passwords to be used when connecting remotely to a router or switch with Telnet.

20. In your opinion (this has no bearing on your grade), please indicate your interest in this course:
  • Not At All Interested
  • Slightly Interested
  • Interested*
  • Very Interested
  • Completely Interested

21. While trying to solve a network issue, a technician made multiple changes to the current router configuration file. The changes did not solve the problem and were not saved. What action can the technician take to discard the changes and work with the file in NVRAM?
  • Issue the reload command without saving the running configuration.*
  • Delete the vlan.dat file and reboot the device.
  • Close and reopen the terminal emulation software.
  • Issue the copy startup-config running-config command.

22. A router with a valid operating system contains a configuration file stored in NVRAM. The configuration file has an enable secret password but no console password. When the router boots up, which mode will display?
  • privileged EXEC mode
  • setup mode
  • user EXEC mode*
  • global configuration mode

23. Which statement is true about the running configuration file in a Cisco IOS device?
  • It affects the operation of the device immediately when modified.*
  • It is stored in NVRAM.
  • It should be deleted using the erase running-config command.
  • It is automatically saved when the router reboots.

24. Which interface allows remote management of a Layer 2 switch?
  • the AUX interface
  • the console port interface
  • the switch virtual interface*
  • the first Ethernet port interface

25. Why would a Layer 2 switch need an IP address?
  • to enable the switch to send broadcast frames to attached PCs
  • to enable the switch to function as a default gateway
  • to enable the switch to be managed remotely*
  • to enable the switch to receive frames from attached PCs

26. A technician is adding a new PC to a LAN. After unpacking the components and making all the connections, the technician starts the PC. After the OS loads, the technician opens a browser, and verifies that the PC can reach the Internet. Why was the PC able to connect to the network with no additional configuration?
  • The PC does not require any additional information to function on the network.
  • The PC came preconfigured with IP addressing information from the factory.
  • The PC was preconfigured to use DHCP.*
  • The PC used DNS to automatically receive IP addressing information from a server.
  • The PC virtual interface is compatible with any network.

27. Refer to the exhibit. A network technician is testing connectivity in a new network. Based on the test results shown in the exhibit, which device does the technician have connectivity with and which device does the technician not have connectivity with? (Choose two.)Introduction to Networking CCNA 1

  • connectivity: switch 2*
  • connectivity: PC-D
  • connectivity: PC-B
  • no connectivity: switch 1
  • no connectivity: switch 2
  • no connectivity: PC-C*

28. Refer to the exhibit.
Refer to the exhibit. What three facts can be determined from the viewable output of the show ip interface brief command? (Choose three.)
  • Two physical interfaces have been configured.
  • The switch can be remotely managed.*
  • One device is attached to a physical interface.*
  • Passwords have been configured on the switch.
  • Two devices are attached to the switch.
  • The default SVI has been configured.*

29. An administrator is configuring a switch console port with a password. In what order will the administrator travel through the IOS modes of operation in order to reach the mode in which the configuration commands will be entered? (Not all options are used.)

Introduction to Networking chapter 2

Follow the below order:
  • – not scored –
  • second mode
  • final mode
  • third mode
  • first mode

30. Match the definitions to their respective CLI hot keys and shortcuts. (Not all options are used.)
Question


Introduction to Networking chapter 1

Follow the below order:

  • completes abbreviated commands and parameters
  • displays the next screen
  • scrolls backwards through previously entered commands
  • – not scored –
  • provides context-sensitive help
  • aborts commands such as trace and ping

Some Other MCQS from version 5 for Introduction to Networking Chapter 2 CCNA 1


1. A network administrator is planning an IOS upgrade on several of the head office routers and switches. Which three questions must be answered before continuing with the IOS selection and upgrade? (Choose three.)
  • Are the devices on the same LAN?
  • Do the devices have enough NVRAM to store the IOS image?
  • What models of routers and switches require upgrades?*
  • What ports are installed on the routers and switches?
  • Do the routers and switches have enough RAM and flash memory for the proposed IOS versions? *
  • What features are required for the devices?*

2. Which two characters are allowed as part of the hostname of a Cisco device? (Choose two.)
  • numbers*
  • question mark
  • space
  • tab
  • dash*

3. A new network administrator has been asked to enter a banner message on a Cisco device. What is the fastest way a network administrator could test whether the banner is properly configured?
  • Reboot the device.
  • Enter CTRL-Z at the privileged mode prompt.
  • Exit global configuration mode.
  • Power cycle the device.
  • Exit privileged EXEC mode and press Enter.*

4. What benefit does DHCP provide to a network?
  • Hosts always have the same IP address and are therefore always reachable.
  • DHCP allows users to refer to locations by a name rather than an IP address.
  • Hosts can connect to the network and get an IP address without manual configuration.*
  • Duplicate addresses cannot occur on a network that issues dynamic addresses using DHCP and has static assignments.

5. Which two features are characteristics of flash memory? (Choose two.)
  • Flash receives a copy of the IOS from RAM when a device is powered on.
  • Flash provides nonvolatile storage.*
  • The contents of flash may be overwritten.*
  • Flash is a component in Cisco switches but not in Cisco routers.
  • The contents of flash may be lost during a power cycle.

6. A router has a valid operating system and a configuration stored in NVRAM. When the router boots up, which mode will display?
  • global configuration mode
  • setup mode
  • ROM monitor mode
  • user EXEC mode*

7. What is a result of using the service password-encryption command on a Cisco network device?
  • The command encrypts the banner message.
  • The command encrypts the enable mode password.
  • All passwords in the configuration are not shown in clear text when viewing the configuration.*
  • A network administrator who later logs into the device will be required to enter an administrator password in order to gain access to the Cisco device.

8. Passwords can be used to restrict access to all or parts of the Cisco IOS. Select the modes and interfaces that can be protected with passwords. (Choose three.)
  • VTY interface *
  • console interface*
  • Ethernet interface
  • boot IOS mode
  • privileged EXEC mode*
  • router configuration mode

9. What criterion must be followed in the design of an IPv4 addressing scheme for end devices?
  • Each IP address must match the address that is assigned to the host by DNS.
  • Each IP address must be unique within the local network.*
  • Each IP address needs to be compatible with the MAC address.
  • Each local host should be assigned an IP address with a unique network component.
  •   

10. Refer to the exhibit. A switch was configured as shown. A ping to the default gateway was issued, but the ping was not successful. Other switches in the same network can ping this gateway. What is a possible reason for this?
CCNA 1 Introduction to Networking
Click Image to View clear

  • The VLAN IP address and the default gateway IP address are not in the same network.
  • The local DNS server is not functioning correctly.
  • The no shutdown command was not issued for VLAN 1.*
  • The ip default-gateway command has to be issued in the VLAN interface configuration mode.
  • The default gateway address must be 192.168.10.1.

11. Match the difinitions to their respective CLI hot keys and shortcuts.
CCNA 1 Introduction to Networking chapter 2

Tab -> Completes abbreviated commands and parameters
Ctrl-R -> returns directly to the privileged EXEC mode
Up Arrow -> scrolls backwards through previously entered commands
Ctrl-Z -> cancels any command currently being entered and returns directly to privileged EXEC mode
Ctrl-C -> Redisplays, on a new line, the command currently being typed


12. Match the description to the common IOS CLI access method.
CCNA 1 Chapter 2 Introduction to Networking

Console port
It displays startup, debugging, and error messages by default.*
It can be used to restore an out-of-box configuration on a switch or router.*
Virtual interface
It allows access throught use of Telnet or SSH protocols.*
It requires an active network connection.*
AUX port
It connects throught dialup connections*
It is not supported on Catalyst switch devices*

This was all about assignment Introduction to Networking chapter 2 in CCNA 1 exam. Share this also with your help them get higher marks and for better understanding. Cheers

Monday, November 18, 2019

7 Things to Consider While Choosing Internet Service Providers

Choosing an Internet Service Provider

Today, the World Wide Web has become an integral part of our daily life. A large number of tech-savvy people all over the world use the global Internet to browse websites, book railway/bus/airplane tickets, apply for jobs, watch movies, operate social media websites, transfer money from one bank account to another, pay utility bills, and perform a lot of work. We can say that our life is totally dependent on the Internet.
7-things-to-consider-while-choosing-internet-service-provider
Selecting Internet Service Provider
The quality of the Internet services provided by companies directly affects the comfort of your stay in the network and the effectiveness of your work. While choosing an Internet service provider, most people usually look at the speed of connection and the cost of tariffs. They ignore the problems caused by a poor-quality Internet connection. So, what criteria should be kept in mind while choosing Internet Service Providers? Let's mull over the below-mentioned points.

1. Determine the Type of Internet connection You Need

There are several ways to access the Internet. All these Internet connection technologies differ from each other in terms of connection technology, the stability of the connection, response time, data transfer, hardware capacities of the computer or mobile device, etc. Just determine your daily Internet data consumption needs and choose anyone from the following:

Types of Internet Connection

I. Satellite Internet

The coverage of this type of Internet connection is the widest. So, you can use the Internet anywhere in the world without any hassle. But, the satellite Internet has remained not very popular among people because of many reasons. It provides one-way access, which means the transfer of information is possible only from the Web to the user. There is no reverse transfer of data at all. This type of connection has relatively low reliability and depends on meteorological condition. If the satellite faces any problem, the Internet connection deteriorates sharply or disappears completely.

There are other disadvantages of it also-very expensive equipment for connection, high cost of use, and low response speed. So, people use this type of Internet connection only when they live in remote areas where other there is simply no other way to use the global Internet.

II. Mobile Internet

As reflected by its name, you can use this type of the Internet wherever you are in the coverage area of the provider (mobile operator).

You can access the Internet in two different ways:

(A) Via a mobile phone &
(B) Through a special modem.

A special modem can be connected to a smartphone, tablet or laptop via USB ports (mini USB) as a separate small device. These days, almost all modern mobile phones have access to the Internet. A few obsolete models of mobile phones are connected to the Internet using slow and expensive GPRS technology. For more modern mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets mobile operators offer high-speed connection technologies that can provide access to the Internet, like CDMA, WiMAX, LTE, UMTS. If a mobile gadget does not have a built-in modem capable of supporting these technologies, almost all mobile operators can offer their branded connectable modem. Always keep in mind that the data transfer speed of these technologies can vary greatly in different locations of the user.

III. Telephone Connection (dial-up)

It is one of the most common ways of connecting to the Internet, used by most of the people. You gain access to the Internet by connecting a computer or laptop via a wired modem to a telephone line. The phone line remains busy and can't be used until the end of the session on the Web. This type of Internet connection is expensive and its speed is slow or sometimes pathetic.

IV. Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity)

Wi-Fi is one of the modern forms of wireless communication, which is widely used on smartphones, tablets and laptops. It is because these devices have a special module that allows you to access the Internet when you are the range of Wi-Fi access points (around 100 meters). You can purchase a Wi-Fi module separately and connect it to the PC as a separate embedded board, or as an external device connected via USB. This type of connection is not in great demand among business users of the Internet because the access points are usually overloaded and the final speed of the Internet becomes pathetic. You can have free access to the Wi-Fi Internet at various public places, such as airports, railway stations, cafes, hotels, petrol stations, etc.

V. ADSL

It is a special kind of connection to the Internet through a telephone line. During this period, the Internet connection does not interfere with the work of the phone. The quality of such a connection is excellent with a high data transfer rate and stability.

VI. Direct connection

It is perhaps the best way to connect to the Internet. The user's computer is connected to the service provider with the help of an ordinary network cable. This type of Internet connection has several advantages, such as high speed, stability, reliability, low cost.

2. Speed

Almost all Internet service providers always talk about high speeds of Internet connection. But, in most of the cases, their Internet speed is slow. So, is the maximum speed for each consumer so important? Of course Yes, which largely depends on their needs.
Speeds of Internet connection

Speed up to 10 Mb / sec

It is sufficient for performing simple actions on the Internet, such as reading news, correspondence in social networks, using the Internet banking, checking e-mail, etc. It is suitable for all those people who use the Internet for non-commercial purposes.

Speed up to 50 MB / s

It is suitable for everyday operations, such as to watch videos and movies on the Internet, communicate with friends and relatives via Skype, download files, etc.

Speed up to 300 Mb / s

It is a high-speed Internet connection that is suitable for people who download a lot of information, receive and send large files, videos and photos playing computer games online. All those people who work from home and perform different business activities of the company may need a high-speed Internet connection on their PC or laptops.

3. Technical Support

While choosing an Internet service provider, you also need to consider how soon and in what time frame you will receive technical assistance if you face technical glitches. It is best to specify the timing and cost of eliminating technical problems immediately after connection. Always keep in mind that a reliable service provider always solves problems as soon as possible. Just write down the phone numbers of the technical support service and contact with a specialist who is able to resolve the problem in a short time.

4. Go Through Customer Reviews

Reviews and feedback are important for selecting an Internet service provider. You can find candid reviews about the Internet service providers on Q-A websites, tech blogs, and simply by contacting your friends and relatives. Ask questions about the stability of the connection. Visit the social media pages of companies, see users comment and take an appropriate decision accordingly.

5. Free Additional Services or Discounts

Sometimes, companies offer additional free services to customers to attract them. For instance, most providers offer users free IPTV when they purchase an Internet connection. Some others offer seasonal discounts on their packages.

6. Price

If you use the Internet commercially, the bills of the rapidly increasing Internet consumption can make a big hole in your budget. So, don't choose a service provider randomly. Just gather information about the presence of service providers in your locality and collect more information about their performance on key parameters, such as the quality of services provided, the positive and negative aspects of each provider, etc. Call each provider and find out the cost of services per month along with other benefits. Choose a company that is ready to offer the maximum services at an affordable price tag.

7. Equipment

It matters a lot if you are looking for a good Internet connection service. Choose a company that offers good modems and routers and let you enjoy a high-speed Internet connection. Poor-quality hardware often causes disturbance in the Internet connection and daily business operations.

Conclusion

While choosing an Internet service provider, you should use the above considerations and choose a company that offers maximum data reliability, technical support, and other related benefits. This will help you to enjoy the benefits of a good Internet connection and perform your personal and professional duties smoothly.

Author Bio:
Lisa Cooper works as a writer for Fixtel, an Australian owned and operated telecommunications company to provide quality telecommunications services and solutions. He is a web addict and spends too much time in front of the computer. When he manages to get away for more than 10 minutes, he will read books, travel or shoot photos.

5 Things to Consider in a Small-Business Phone System

Small-Business Phone System

A platform where multiple phones are utilized by organizations in an interconnected fashion which permits features such as telephone transferring and handling, conference calling, telephone metering, and bookkeeping, shared and private voice mailboxes. A cell phone system may include merely a couple of phones in a tiny business till and including complex personal branch exchange (PBX) system employed by large organizations.
Small-business-phone-system
Phone system
Business telephone systems can work over the Public Switched Telephone Network and/or over the Internet (Internet telephony or VoIP). Business phone systems can also be carried as a presented service (mostly denoted to as a centrex), which can free businesses from having to finance inexpensive equipment.

Capacities of cell phone systems will continue to enlarge 2019. One trend that will go on is the development of communications that are merged with the applications and systems.

Companies no longer use their phone systems to make and receive phone calls. These approaches are being used for video calls, instant messaging and faxing. Research shows that being able to access their communication tools all is something employees appreciate. The study from RingCentral found while 65 percent say makes them productive, that 67 percent of workers believe it helps them reach better efficiencies.

Keeping that in mind, individuals would expect a rise in the total number of businesses adopting unified communications approaches to aid in increasing productivity and merge their communications tools.
Along with increasingly more and more businesses adopting communications systems in 2019, you may start looking to start looking for strategies to strengthen their communications supplies. Lately, as an instance 8x8 established a team messaging application and a fresh mobile program that was unified-specific was introduced by RingCentral.

When is the last time you made a major buy?

Just how long did you invest in researching options until you made your decision?


Figuring out, most people spend 15 hours researching before buying an automobile. And as soon as you purchase it, you spend more money on gas, oil changes, tire rotations, as well as other maintenance. And the value of the car begins to depreciate after you drive it off the lot.
When is the last time you've purchased a phone system?
How much time did you spend researching? 

Were you aware of what benefits and features to look for?

If you're on the marketplace for a mobile system, then it's well worth spending a while doing product research. Considering that unlike a vehicle, a telephone system can save money or even assist you in making money.

Given below are the 5 things that must be considered before choosing a small-business phone system:

1) Easy Management

Not everyone is a mechanic, so most people want a car that is easy to maintain so they don’t have to take it into the shop regularly. Likewise, most small businesses don’t have huge IT departments to manage complex communications systems. In some cases, you may have only one IT person who handles all your technology. When you purchase a new phone system:

  • Inspect the back-end management and ensure that the maintenance needs slight effort.
  • Check out whether it’s simple to finish day-to-day tasks like adding new lines, altering extensions, resetting passwords, etc.

Keep in mind, less time taken maintaining the phone system means you can give more time on other, more creative doings around the office.

2) Rapid Setup and Personalization

Most people desire to really go into a car dealership and drive off the lot several hours later. No one wishes to spend days with no car to drive. You ought to expect an identical task when installing a new phone system. Setting a new phone system up may be debilitating, especially if you use an even mobile system that is harder.

  • Ensure that the solution you buy can be fitted rapidly, with little or no stoppage for your communications.
  • Check that the phone system can be modified rapidly to meet any requirements that your small business may have.

3) Valuing for Small-business Funds

There are several small-business mobile systems to expensive enterprise-level platforms, which range from essential methods available on the market. At times that the adage “you get what you pay for" could be legitimate, so be skeptical of cheap phone systems provided by companies without IP telephony experience. At precisely the exact same time frame, you do not have the luxury of spending huge amounts of money on a communications platform. Do your homework and find a telephone system that fulfills your requirements without being overpriced. And remember to factor in reliability and maintenance (think fuel usage and oil changes) into the equation to understand that the whole value of ownership.

4) Flexibility to Raise with your Business

More than ever, organizations must become agile. One of the best ways to be agile as your small business is to employ a flexible communications strategy that can adapt along with you. Would you get a two-door coupe using a baby on the way? Verify that your mobile system vendor offers a simple migration path for upgrades. Precisely:

  • Start looking for subscription certificate plans that let you upgrade your software as new versions become open to simplifying adding capacity.
  • Cross-check that you can use the same IP phones if you update to a bigger system since phones are the main investment.

5) Help of a Reliable Communications Vendor

Would you buy a car from a brand you have never heard of? Business phone systems are offered by vendors, but maybe perhaps not all vendors are made equal. Your communications platform is your company's face and a telephone system are actually really a significant long-term investment. It's how your employees connect to partners and clients. Ensure you are dealing with a business which will be there to encourage you to come and has experience providing reliable communications.
To maintain, and jump ahead, of these competitors, it plans to reason that most phone providers will look to better their communications' offerings.

Author’s Note:

IDeACOM® is dedicated to join hands with businesses to manage their core business by enhancing communications. IDeACOM® bids a modified custom made “One Source” solution to all the communication requirements.

Affordable Solution to Check Phone Number and Phone Line Availability Using VoIP

Checking Phone Number and Phone Line Availability Using VoIP

One of the newest and most advanced services used by industries is Phone Number Monitoring. This outstanding solution is an economical service that effectively places all of your scheduled calls while automatically generating alert calls in case the response is not as expected. For most call centers and cutting-edge monitoring applications, the use of a Response Time (RT) measurement feature is widely available for assessing the time that existed when the call was made to when it was answered.

Features of Phone Number Monitoring

Telephone line monitoring provides advanced capabilities for determining your company’s phone system performance and in offering real-time alerts when all your calls are unanswered or failed to meet the predetermined call-response standard. Furthermore, the features are scalable to meet the needs of small or large call centers, and PNM technologies provide the finest benefits with minimal investment. Hence, most industries prefer to use phone line monitoring in their company because it is easy to set up as a tool in reporting in real-time, or in monitoring call failures or non-responsive calls. You can also obtain statistical reports that are intended for call failures or hold time.

Phone line monitoring is a special web-based solution that is easy to set up, schedule and utilize. With this service, you can instantly monitor calls and interpret all results against all pre-determined response time criteria. In case the call fails, a text message, email or alert call will be sent instantly to inform all users of any discrepancy. Furthermore, the tool comes with a cutting-edge feature such as the RTM or Response Time Measurement. With this service, you can internally route phone calls and determine the accurate time incurred between the call connect and the time your call was answered by the agent. In addition, the service records all of the pertinent call details and makes these pieces of information available online for analysis, evaluation, printing or reporting purposes.

With the help of PNM, you can enhance your company’s telecommunication services and performance. The tool can help all call center managers in attaining some of the basic performance objectives in the job. For instance, a monitoring system can ensure the availability and responsiveness of the phone system. It is also possible to determine the reliability of the company’s internal departments in attending to customers’ concerns by responding to their calls.

However, the attainment of these objectives may be meaningless without the use of the right tool. Thus, call center managers should take the time and effort in investing in a reliable and dependable tool such as a monitoring system that will enhance business productivity and operations while meeting the demands of customers.

Why Choose a Phone Line Monitoring System

Utilizing the best telephone line monitoring system is a cost-effective and practical solution for any industry. This tool is quick to set up, and you only need to encode details about your phone number, choose your preferred greeting and schedule specific alerts for calls. There is no additional interaction required, as well. Moreover, the tool is widely available anytime or any day by simply using all scheduler. You will instantly receive alert calls or emails when the response time has not been met.

Furthermore, there is no need to install or purchase a special piece of equipment. You can get started easily even without a long-term commitment or contract. Hence, you can always choose to discontinue the service whenever you wish and just pay the amount you have incurred for a month or the duration that you have availed of this service. This way, you can save more money while employing a practical business telecommunications solution for your company. Sign Up for Immediate Access to PNM Services here.

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Introduction to Networking Assignments (V.5 + V.6) CCNA 1 chapter 1 Answers 100% correct

Hi! This solution is for assignment Introduction to Networking chapter 1 in CCNA 1  v.5 plus v.6 exams given in Netacad Academy. This solution is just for learning purpose & please don't use this for any kind cheat. Be honest and do study ...

Note: If you found any missing question or new question then please comment question. Your contribution is valuable to our blog. Use "CTRL + F" to quickly find you question.

1.  A company is contemplating whether to use a client/server or a peer-to-peer network. What are three characteristics of a peer-to-peer network? (Choose three.)
  • better security
  • easy to create*
  • better device performance when acting as both client and server
  • lacks centralized administration *
  • less cost to implement*
  • scalable

2. What two criteria are used to help select a network medium from various network media? (Choose two.)
  • the types of data that need to be prioritized
  • the cost of the end devices utilized in the network
  • the distance the selected medium can successfully carry a signal*
  • the number of intermediary devices installed in the network
  • the environment where the selected medium is to be installed*

3. What are two functions of end devices on a network? (Choose two.)
  • They originate the data that flows through the network.*
  • They direct data over alternate paths in the event of link failures.
  • They filter the flow of data to enhance security.
  • They are the interface between humans and the communication network.*
  • They provide the channel over which the network message travels.

4. An employee at a branch office is creating a quote for a customer. In order to do this, the employee needs to access confidential pricing information from internal servers at the Head Office. What type of network would the employee access?
  • an intranet*
  • the Internet
  • an extranet
  • a local area network

5. Which two Internet connection options do not require that physical cables be run to the building? (Choose two.)
  • DSL
  • cellular*
  • satellite*
  • dialup
  • dedicated leased line

6. Which expression accurately defines the term bandwidth?
  • a method of limiting the impact of a hardware or software failure on the network
  • a measure of the data carrying capacity of the media*
  • a state where the demand on the network resources exceeds the available capacity
  • a set of techniques to manage the utilization of network resources

7. What is a characteristic of a converged network?
  • it provides only one path between the source and destination of a message
  • it limits the impact of a failure by minimizing the number of devices affected
  • it delivers data, voice, and video over the same network infrastructure*
  • A converged network requires a separate network infrastructure for each type of communication technology

8. Which statement describes the use of powerline networking technology?
  • New “smart” electrical cabling is used to extend an existing home LAN.
  • A home LAN is installed without the use of physical cabling.
  • A device connects to an existing home LAN using an adapter and an existing electrical outlet.*
  • Wireless access points use powerline adapters to distribute data through the home LAN.

9. A user is implementing security on a small office network. Which two actions would provide the minimum security requirements for this network? (Choose two.)
  • implementing a firewall*
  • installing a wireless network
  • installing antivirus software*
  • implementing an intrusion detection system
  • adding a dedicated intrusion prevention device

10. Fill in the blank.
The acronym byod refers to the policy that allows employees to use their personal devices in the business office to access the network and other resources.

11. Which device performs the function of determining the path that messages should take through internetworks?
  • a router*
  • a firewall
  • a web server
  • a DSL modem

12. Which two statements describe intermediary devices? (Choose two.)
  • Intermediary devices generate data content.
  • Intermediary devices alter data content.
  • Intermediary devices direct the path of the data. *
  • Intermediary devices connect individual hosts to the network.*
  • Intermediary devices initiate the encapsulation process.

13. Which area of the network would a college IT staff most likely have to redesign as a direct result of many students bringing their own tablets and smartphones to school to access school resources?
  • extranet
  • intranet
  • wired LAN
  • wireless LAN*
  • wireless WAN

14. Which two connection options provide an always-on, high-bandwidth Internet connection to computers in a home office? (Choose two.)
  • cellular
  • DSL*
  • satellite
  • cable*
  • dial-up telephone

15. Which term describes the state of a network when the demand on the network resources exceeds the available capacity?
  • convergence
  • congestion*
  • optimization
  • synchronization

16. Which statement describes a characteristic of cloud computing?
  • A business can connect directly to the Internet without the use of an ISP.
  • Applications can be accessed over the Internet by individual users or businesses using any device, anywhere in the world.*
  • Devices can connect to the Internet through existing electrical wiring.
  • Investment in new infrastructure is required in order to access the cloud.

17. What security violation would cause the most amount of damage to the life of a home user?
  • denial of service to your email server
  • replication of worms and viruses in your computer
  • capturing of personal data that leads to identity theft*
  • spyware that leads to spam emails

18. Fill in the blank.
A converged network is capable of delivering voice, video, text, and graphics over the same communication channels.

19. What are two functions of intermediary devices on a network? (Choose two.)
  • They are the primary source and providers of information and services to end devices.
  • They run applications that support collaboration for business.
  • They form the interface between the human network and the underlying communication network.
  • They direct data along alternate pathways when there is a link failure. *
  • They filter the flow of data, based on security settings.*

20. What is the Internet?
  • It is a network based on Ethernet technology.
  • It provides network access for mobile devices.
  • It provides connections through interconnected global networks.*
  • It is a private network for an organization with LAN and WAN connections.

21. What type of network traffic requires QoS?
  • email
  • on-line purchasing
  • video conferencing*
  • wiki

22. What type of network must a home user access in order to do online shopping?
  • an intranet
  • the Internet*
  • an extranet
  • a local area network

23. A network administrator is implementing a policy that requires strong, complex passwords. Which data protection goal does this policy support?
  • data integrity
  • data quality
  • data confidentiality*
  • data redundancy

24. Match the description to the form of network communication. (Not all options are used.
Introduction-to-Networking-chapter-1-CCNA-1
Introduction to Networking chapter 1
Place the options in the following order:
an audio-based medium that allows people to deliver their recordings to a wide audience –> podcast
interactive websites where people create and share user-generated content with friends and family –> social media
web pages that groups of people can edit and view together –> wiki
real-time communication between two or more people –> instant messaging

25. Match each characteristic to its corresponding internet conectivity type. (Not all options are used)
Introduction-to-Networking-chapter-1
Introduction to Networking ccna 1
Place the options in the following order:
high bandwidth connection that runs over telephone line --> 1
typically has very low bandwidth --> 2
not suited for heavily wooded areas --> 3
uses coaxial cable as a medium --> 4

26. Match the definition to the security goal. (Not all options are used.)
NetAcad-Chapter-1-Introduction-to-Networking
CCNA v.5 & v.6 Answers

ensuring confidentiality -> only the intended recipients can access and read the data
maintaining integrity -> the assurance that the information has not been altered during transmission
ensuring availability -> the assurance of timely and reliable access to data


Some Other MCQS from version 5 for Introduction to Networking Chapter 1 CCNA 1


1. Refer to the exhibit. Which set of devices contains only intermediary devices?
Introduction-to-networking-chapter-1-ccna-1-answers
Introduction To Networking Chapter 1
  • A, B, D, G*
  • A, B, E, F
  • C, D, G, I
  • G, H, I, J

2. Which two statements about the relationship between LANs and WANs are true? (Choose two.)
  • Both LANs and WANs connect end devices.
  • WANs connect LANs at slower speed bandwidth than LANs connect their internal end devices.*
  • LANs connect multiple WANs together.
  • WANs must be publicly-owned, but LANs can be owned by either public or private entities.
  • WANs are typically operated through multiple ISPs, but LANs are typically operated by single organizations or individuals.* 

3. Which description correctly defines a converged network?
  • a single network channel capable of delivering multiple communication forms*
  • a network that allows users to interact directly with each other over multiple channels
  • a dedicated network with separate channels for video and voice services
  • a network that is limited to exchanging character-based information


4. What is a characteristic of circuit-switched networks?
  • If all circuits are busy, a new call cannot be placed.*
  • If a circuit fails, the call will be forwarded on a new path.
  • Circuit-switched networks can dynamically learn and use redundant circuits.
  • A single message can be broken into multiple message blocks that are transmitted through multiple circuits simultaneously.

5. Which tool provides real-time video and audio communication over the Internet so that businesses can conduct corporate meetings with participants from several remote locations?
  • wiki
  • weblog
  • TelePresence*
  • instant messaging

6. Which three network tools provide the minimum required security protection for home users? (Choose three.)
  • an intrusion prevention system
  • antivirus software *
  • antispyware software*
  • access control lists
  • a firewall*
  • powerline networking

7. What two criteria are used to help select network media? (Choose two.)
  • the distance the media can successfully carry a signal*
  • the environment where the media is to be installed*
  • the cost of the end devices utilized in the network
  • the number of intermediary devices installed in the network
  • the types of data that need to be prioritized

8. A college is building a new dormitory on its campus. Workers are digging in the ground to install a new water pipe for the dormitory. A worker accidentally damages a fiber optic cable that connects two of the existing dormitories to the campus data center. Although the cable has been cut, students in the dormitories only experience a very short interruption of network services. What characteristic of the network is shown here?
  • quality of service (QoS)
  • scalability
  • security
  • fault tolerance *
  • integrity

9. Which two Internet solutions provide an always-on, high-bandwidth connection to computers on a LAN? (Choose two.) Which two Internet solutions provide an always-on, high-bandwidth connection to computers on a LAN? (Choose two.)
  • cellular
  • DSL*
  • satellite
  • cable*
  • dial-up telephone

10. Which statement describes a network that supports QoS?
  • The fewest possible devices are affected by a failure.
  • The network should be able to expand to keep up with user demand.
  • The network provides predictable levels of service to different types of traffic.*
  • Data sent over the network is not altered in transmission.

11. Which expression accurately defines the term congestion?
  • a method of limiting the impact of a hardware or software failure on the network
  • a measure of the data carrying capacity of the network
  • a state where the demand on the network resources exceeds the available capacity*
  • a set of techniques to manage the utilization of network resources

12. Requiring strong, complex passwords is a practice that supports which network security goal?
  • maintaining communication integrity
  • ensuring reliability of access
  • ensuring data confidentiality*
  • ensuring redundancy

13. Which two Internet solutions provide an always-on, high-bandwidth connection to computers on a LAN? (Choose two.)
  • cellular
  • DSL*
  • satellite
  • cable*
  • dial-up telephone

14. Fill in the blank.
The acronym byod refers to the trend of end users being able to use their personal devices to access the business network and resources.

That's is the end of Introduction to Networking chapter 1 answer v.5 plus v.6. Also share this on social networks with your friends to help them to learn.

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

The A - Z Guide Of GSM ARCHITECTURE

In this article, we will briefly go through the Architecture of GSM. The GSM architecture consists of four major interconnected elements which are
 
  1. Mobile Station (MS)
  2. Base Station Subsystem (BSS)
  3. Network Subsystem (NSS)
  4. Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC)
gsm-architecture


1. Mobile Station - Ms

This part of the Gsm network deals directly with users and allow them to initiate their desire request, like making a voice call or sending a short message. Ms consists of two entities Mobile Equipment (ME) and the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM).

Mobile Equipment (ME)

MS is a device used to access the network. It holds a unique number that is permanently attached to it and known as International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI). IMEI allows a network to locate its user on the system, which is later used in HLR and VLR databases.

Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)

A small chip also is known as "sim card". Sim card can be plugged in the Mobiel Equipment or also come along with ME. A unique number is known as International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI), also attached to a sim card. Mobile equipment is only an electronic device without a sim card, and it can perform only a few essential functions.

2. Base Station Subsystem - BSS

The BSS is also known as Radio Network because BSS includes all essential nodes and functionalities that connect Mobile Station to the network using air interface. Base Station Subsystem includes Base Transceiver Station (BTS), Base Station Controller (BSC), and Transcoder Sub‐Multiplexer (TCSM).

Base Station Subsystem (BTS)

BTS is responsible for managing the interface between the mobile station and the network. That's why BTS acts as a hub for the entire Network. Transmission of sending and receiving signals are usually done with antennas having 120° sectors. Some of the vital function of the Base Station Subsystem (BTS) are
  • Communicate with both Mobile Station (MS) and Base Station Controller (BSC)
  • Encrypting, Modulating, Encoding, Multiplexing, and feeding RF signals to the antenna.
  • Measures quality and power of the received signal
  • Decrypting, Decoding and equalizing received signals
  • Synchronization of both Time and Frequency
  • Frequency Hoping
  • Transcoding and Rate adaptation

Base Station Controller (BSC)

The primary function of BSC is to control radio resources, especially the base stations (BTS). It also acts as an interface between a base station subsystem (BSC) and a Mobile Switching Centre (MSC). BSC has three primary functions, which include performing handovers or handoffs, controls frequency hopping, and manages radio resources for BTS. A few other tasks are listed below.
  • Provide an interface for MSC to communicate with the mobile station
  • Responsible for the control of transmitted power.
  • Allocating time slot and frequency to MS in its area
  • Determinations of time-delay of signals received from the Mobile station
  • Initiating and terminating calls setups
  • Synchronization of both Time and Frequency
  • Provide an interface for the operations and maintenance center (OMC)
  • Security, alarms, etc

The Transcoders

Basically, Transcoders are part of BSS but sometimes physically located in MSC. Although they are installed in the close of range of  MSC. The primary purpose of transcoders is to save bandwidth and reduce the network in terms of cost. Transcoders compact data to reduce the rate at which data is transmitted. It compresses 64kbps data into 16kbps and vise Versa.

3. Network Subsystem - NSS

Network Switching Subsystem is considered the core of the GSM Network. NSS performs all switching functions and allows other telecommunication networks like Public Switch Network (PSTN), international networks to communicate with GSM users. NSS contains large databases that help in performing switching functions.
NSS include
  • Mobile Switching Center (MSC)
  • Home location register (HLR)
  • Visitor location register (VLR)
  • Authentication Center (AUC)
  • Equipment identity register (EIR)

Mobile Switching Centre (MSC)

MSC is the central component of NSS and is known as the brain of the GSM network. A network usually contains more than once MSC. The primary purpose of MSC is call-switching with other mobile/fixed networks. It also has some additional functions like registration, authentication, handoffs, routing roaming calls, and providing different interfaces.
The summarize important essential function carried out by MSC are

Call processing: controls data/voice call setup, Handoffs, and subscriber validation and location.
Operations and maintenance support: Includes the management of radio resources and database, registration, location updating, traffic metering, and measurement.
Interworking: Provide the interface for PSTN networks, Fix networks, and other supported systems.
Billing: Collecting and processing subscriber billing data.

Home Location Register (HLR)

HLR is a permanent storage database that includes subscriber information like service profile, activity status, and location information. When a user by a new SIM, their data is stored in HLR. It contains IMSI, MSISDN, Service subscription information (prepaid/postpaid), Billing information, roaming restrictions, supplementary services, etc.

Visitor Location Registrar (VLR)

The primary purpose of the VLR database is to reduce signaling between MSC and HLR, thus putting a less burden on HLR. VLR temporary store information of the visiting subscriber. VLR includes the following information
  • Temporary mobile subscriber identity (TMSI)
  • Location area identity (LAI)
  • Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN)
  • Cell Phone status

Authentication Center (AUC)

AUC performs an authentication function to protects against intruders in the air interface.
Generally associated with HLR required to access and update subscriber data continuously.
The authentication process will habitually process begins whenever a user initializes any process in the system. AUC uses authentication keys and algorithms like (SRES, RAND, KC, ETC) to provide extra security.

Equipment identity register (EIR)

The Equipment Identity Register consists of IMEIs data distributed in three list
White List:  List of IMEIs that are allowed to use the network without any trouble.
Gray List: This list consists of IMEIs that have received a warning message for using faulty software or equipment. Such IMEIs can be possibly get banned at any time.
Black List: IMEIs that are banned for illegal activity or for some other reason. Such IMEIs are not allowed to use network resources. The primary purpose of creating these lists is to deal with fraudulent, stolen, and banned devices. 

4. Operations and maintenance center (OMC)

Nowadays, networks are getting more complex; that is why they require more attention because no one wants a system that has up and downs. Operation and Maintenance Centre (OMC) is used to make sure that the network runs smoothly. OMC performs four primary operations which is
  • Network Monitoring
  • Network Measurement
  • Network Development
  • Fault management
OMC will generate alarms in case of error or fault is detected. Some errors (software related) are fixed automatically, and others would require a visit. OMC collects data for analysis, which plays a vital role in network optimization.

Reference Book: 
1. Mishra, Ajay R.-Fundamentals of network planning and optimization 2G_3G_4G _ evolution to 5G-Wiley (2018)
2. Sauter, Martin "From GSM to LTE‐Advanced Pro and 5G"
3. Gottapu Sasibhushana Rao "Mobile CellularCommunication"

Tuesday, October 8, 2019

Handoffs or Handover process in cellular communication

What are Handoffs or Handover

In cellular communication, the coverage is divided into many cells, and the base station was installed to provide coverage to the cells. Users in the coverage area served by the specified base station by providing a specific channel. A question comes in mind that.

What will happen if a user on a call leaves the coverage area and moves to another cell served by another base station?

Or

The quality of established a link between Mobile Station and Base station decreasing continuously.

In such a situation, a technique is used to transfer a call from one cell to another cell served by another base station. So we can define Handover as
The switching of an ongoing call to a different channel or cell (base station) is known as handover or handoff.
Handovers-Handoffs-in-telecommunication

Why handoff and what parameters required for successful handoff?

Suppose you are on a call with the boss or client receiving necessary instruction while traveling in a subway, and your call gets disconnected, or you start receiving disturbing noise. Ah damn, no one wants such a network, and you will decide to move another network. Usually, this happens when distances between the mobile station and the base station are not quite enough to receive the threshold signal. That's why handover gains attraction of network engineers. Some primary reason is listed below

  1. If signals between the mobile station and base station go down from threshold value, then handoff is required.
  2. It will allow the mobile station to continue voice calls while moving in a high-speed vehicle.
  3. Less call drop and congestion rate, which increases network performance.

As we learn above about the importance of handover, network engineers need to take care of specific parameters to implement a handoff system. That includes

  1. Availability of Channels.
  2. The base station must have information about the signal strength of the connected mobile station.
  3. Signal Strength of nearby base stations.

Process of Handoff/handover

Handoff or handover has different types, and each individual is somehow different from each other. Handover takes place after verifying specific parameters, and it cannot be done in one or two steps. The below-described method is the general format of handover.
Proper-Handover-process-in-telecommunication
  1. Mobile Station monitors signal strength regularly of the adjacent base station.
  2. Its keep updating connected base station about receive signal strength.
  3. In case of signals drop and reach to a minimum acceptable level, then MS acknowledge base station.
  4. Base station checks channel availability and also inform nearby base station about new incoming Ms.
  5. The old base station sends MS information to a new base station.
  6. When a new base station receives MS detail than the old base station free channel for other users.
  7. Now the mobile station is served by the new base station.
Reference Book:
Theodore S Rappaport "Wireless Communications- Principles And Practice"
Gottapu Sasibhushana Rao "Mobile Cellular Communication"

Friday, September 27, 2019

Why -48 volt used in Telecom Equipments?

"Why -48 volt used in telecom equipment?"
Many people asked this valuable but straightforward question on different platforms. Also, an interviewer can ask you this simple question. So it is better to make yourself ready for such types of problems. I have done a little research and gather all the information I found you can see below.
ethernet cable
Ethernet cable
Top 5 Reason Behind -48 volt used in Telecom Equipments
  1. As per Columb's law, like charges repel each and we know that Lighting or Thunders is 95% negatively charged and 5% positive. In this way, we have the chance to save telecommunication devices from heavenly light by using negative voltage.
  2. The positive voltage causes more corrosion in the metal than the negative energy. ( What is corrosion? Corrosion is a natural process that gradually destroys metals through chemical or electrochemical reactions with their environment. )
  3. To avoid leakage currents to ground generated by moisture do not electroplate away the copper in the wires.
  4. +48 voltage offers more fluctuation as compared to -48 voltage.
  5. A negative voltage is considered safer for the human body as compared to positive voltage while working in the field.
That's for all of you other reason then that please don't forget comment below ... Love

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

What is means by GSM BURST and its types

GSM BURST

As we know the GSM network uses the time slot to transmit information and Burst is a type of information that contains in particular time slots of GSM network. Bursts are designed to fit in these time slots to transmit information. GSM consist of five bursts which are
  1. Normal Burst 
  2. Synchronization Burst 
  3. Frequency Correction Burst 
  4. Access Burst
  5. Dummy Burst

1. Normal Burst

Gsm-Normal-Burst
Gsm Normal Burst

Typical burst contains 114 bit of valuable information and divided into two groups 57 bits each. These bits contain signaling and user data.
Stealing flag helps to indicate special events like Handovers etc. It also helps to verify that whether the block contains data or is stolen.
Tail bits found at the start and end of data. It is used as a guard time. Tail bit are three (3) in number and set to zero and placed at the beginning and at the end of a burst.
The Guard Period (GP) helps to avoid overlapping with other bursts that may carry some additional information. The length of the Guard Period is 8.25 bits.
The training sequence has a length of 26 bits and is used to synchronizes the receivers, hence this effects multipath propagation. The Training sequence helps in adapting the receiver parameters to the current path propagation.

2. Synchronization Burst:

GSM-Synchronization-Burst
GSM Synchronization Burst

As its name suggests, this burst is used to synchronize Mobile Station
and BTS using a synchronization channel (SCH). The function of both Tail and Guard bit the same as to mention above in Normal Burst.
Coded Data tells about TDMA frame number.
The training sequence tells about the base station number.
Mobile Station at first demodulates synchronization burst. That's why the length is 64 bits. It helps to avoid Larger multipath delay spreads.

3. Frequency Correction Burst

Frequency-Correction-Burst
Frequency Correction Burst

The most simple format of all the bursts is used for the frequency correction burst, which is transmitted only in the frequency correction channel (FCCH).
All 148 bits are coded with zeros and frequency, which is a pure sine wave (GMSK modulator Produce sine wave) is transmitted that enables mobile to synchronize its frequency with the master frequency.
Frequency correction burst appears on frequency correction channel.

4. Random Access Burst:

Random-Access-Burst
Random Access Burst
Random Access Burst has a unique format as compared to others because of its special task. When first switched on, A mobile station (MS) uses the access burst for initial access to a BTS. The first job is to synchronize itself with BTS in frequency and time using synchronization burst.
Burst has a length of 88 bits plus 68.25 guard bits. The access burst length is set large because to make it possible, that access burst appears at the BTS. It can be increased more by adding a guard band of 68.25.

5. Dummy Burst:

GSM-Dummy-Burst
GSM Dummy Burst
Dummy burst contains no user data information. Dummy is used to fill out idle time slots on the channel when a user is not sending any data. Dummy burst sent by the base station on the base channel. When a mobile station is turned on, it easily discovers the base channel. The pseudo-random bit sequence is used to avoid accidental confusion with frequency correction burst.